Hall 3 - BOARD 7


Spotted fever (typhus ehanthematicus), typhus or "historical typhus," as it was called because it was often mentioned in the history of war chronicles, emerges with the appearance of pediculosis in irregular conditions such as wars, natural disasters and the like. Spotted fever is characterized by acute infection of the blood caused by the Rickettzia Prowazeki, transmitted by white human lice (Pediculus humanis corporis). The characteristics of the disease are high fever and skin rash. Strict isolation of patients is required and it is also significant to provide clean apartments, clothing and underwear so as to prevent pediculosis, which could not be done in the circumstances found in Valjevo at the end of 1914, especially not in winter conditions.

The disease most likely appeared in several places at the same time, where Valjevo was one of the major focal points from which the epidemics further spread. The generally accepted view is that the cause of the large epidemics was captured Austro-Hungarian wounded and sick who were abandoned in Valjevo, in addition to the general situation the Austro-Hungarian army left behind after the Battle of Kolubara: a large concentration of people utterly inadequately housed in a small space, with very poor sanitary conditions and a lot of deceased being left unburied - these were ideal conditions for the rapid development of the epidemics.

During the First World War, not only typhus but also typhoid fever and typhoid recurrence were observed as epidemic. Typhoid (typhus abdominalis) is septic-toxic disease that is transmitted by contaminated food and water and is caused by the bacterium Salmonella Typhi. Typhoid recurrence, or relapsing fever (Febris recurrens; Typhus recurrens) is caused by a spirochete Borrelia recurrentis which is also transmitted by white louse and ticks. It is an infectious disease characterized by rapid onset and several febrile attacks of high fever, shivering, faintness and severe headache.